2nd hour 2011-2012 Egypt

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Introduction – Kathleen Pescasio
The Egyptian Civilization began in the year 3200 B.C. and continued to 500 B.C. It was located in Northeast Africa and developed along the Nile River. Many Egyptians depended on the Nile for survival. They praised it for providing them food and for the fertile lands, which attracted farmers from all over Africa. Civilians left many clues to what Ancient Egypt was like. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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This is a picture of the map of Egypt, and on the right is the Nile River.

Written Languages - Jenny Blake
The Egyptians needed a way to record important events so they created hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphs are a form of picture writing. Scribes (a person who is trained to read and write) recorded taxes, ceremonies, and gifts. They then created demotic which is a simpler form of writing which was used more often. A plant along the Nile River called papyrus was a paper like material to write on. There were also many hieroglyphs carved into Rosetta stone. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)

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These were the hieroglyphs Egyptians used.

Social Classes- Jenny Blake
The highest class was the pharaohs, they were treated as gods. Nobles were next, they were the merchants, scribes and artisans. There were also peasants,
such as the farmer and slaves who also served the pharaohs. Egyptian women on the other hand had a higher status and greater independence. Women could go where they please and not be stopped by anyone. They could also inherit property, enter business deals, buy and sell goods, go to court and obtain a divorce. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)

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These are the pharaohs which were the highest social class. Also known as the gods.

Public Works- Jenny Blake
They had many tombs for their royal leaders. They would bury them with everyday needs and possessions because they thought the afterlife would
be similar to life. Egyptians were famous for their pyramids. They used limestone blocks which weighed 2 ½ tons each. They would use their hands and pull the blocks on sleds and up ramps they made. Pyramids equaled strength. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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Pyramids that the Egyptians built by hand.

Religion – Kathleen Pescasio
Egypt had a variety of religious be
liefs and practices. They believed that gods and goddesses ruled this world and the afterlife. According to Egyptians, only Pharaoh could conduct ceremonies for the sun god, and the god Osiris ruled the underworld and was god of the Nile. They were all affected by belief in the afterlife. Egyptians thought that the afterlife would be like life on Earth, so they buried the dead with everything they would need for eternity. They also preserved the dead, which is known as mummification. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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On the left is a picture of a Pharaoh, and on the right is a picture of mummification.

Egyptian Cities – Kathleen Pescasio
The cities also had their different stories. To the south, the city Nubia was developed. Egypt acquired resources like ivory, cattle, and slaves from the city and fought or traded with it for centuries. Pretty soon, Nubia started leaving its mark on Egyptian culture. Egyptian arts showed Nubian people. In 750 B.C., Nubian kings even added Egypt to their own territory until about 650 B.C., when Assyrians with armed weapons
descended on Egypt. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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On the left is a picture of a Nubian map and on the right is Nubian artwork.

Job Specialization- Karlie Kondrath
Job specializations include a lot of different jobs referring to many different things. You could be a servant or slave to the pharaoh or you could be the priest. Jobs that are involved in government or merchants are everything that makes the city work. An important job is farming. They are what lead to a powerful civilization that depended on the Nile River. If there was no Nile River there would be no Egypt. When the river floods it provides great silt, or soil, for farmers great for farming.(Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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The picture shows ancient Egyptian farming.

Art and Architecture- Karlie Kondrath
Art is broken down into two groups Paintings and sculptures. These include status, carvings on temples, and paintings in tombs. People who drew or sculpted these scenes based them on everyday life whether it was about the agriculture or the victory of a new battle.
Architecture is the obvious, the pyramids. Pyramids are the tombs for gods and goddesses and later in time other Egyptians. They believed in after life and perfected the mummification process so that they could use their body there. Mummification is the preservation of the dead. They used the pyramids as the tombs and left their gods to rest for eternity.
Another architectural monument is the sphinx. The sphinx show an early pharaoh, King Khafre, as a powerful lion. It is believed that the sphinx silently guards the pharaohs in the pyramids temples. (Ellis & Esler, 1997)
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This is a picture of the sphinx that silently guards the pyramids in the background.

Egyptians Government-Karlie Kondrath
The Egyptian were formed around one person who ruled over the land, the Pharaoh. A pharaoh is what Egyptian rulers
were called. It was believed that the pharaoh was half human half god. Since the Egyptian civilization thought they were part-god so the pharaoh had absolute power, so they controlled the land. Pharaohs organized the state in a way where it was strong. Even though the pharaoh ruled he relied on a vizier. A vizier is the chief minister. He watches over the business of government, such as tax collection, farming, irrigation system, and training new officials.(Ellis & Esler, 1997)

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The picture shows the government system with the pharaoh on top.

Conclusion - Kathleen Pescasio
The history of Ancient Egypt has not been forgotten, and is still learned about today. Although the old Egypt has come to an end, a new kingdom began in 1550-1070 B.C. This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut and Tutankhamun. Egypt was later invaded and conquered by Assyrians, Nubians, and Libyans, but Egypt usually drove them out and got control of their country. (Unknown, 2011)

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The Great Sphinx and the Pyramid of Giza are the heart of Egypt's tourist industry.




Works Cited - Jenny Blake
World history connec

tions to today by Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis and Anthony Esler copyrighted in 1997 published in New Jersey
unknown author. 1997, nova. pbs source : http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/hieroglyph/
unknown author. 2010, Ancient World Wonders pbs: source:http://ancientworldwonders.com/10-interesting-facts-about-the-great-pyramid-of-giza.html

Works Cited - Kathleen Pescasio
-Ellis and Esler, 1997, Prentice Hall: World History--Connections To Today
-Wikipedia, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt
Pictures:
-http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/egypt.htm
- http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/river-nile-facts.html
- http://www.edupics.com/image-pharaoh-i9842.html
- http://historylink101.net/images/anubis_mummification.jpg
- http://www.blackeconomics.co.uk/nubia.htm
- http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=04&region=afs
- http://www.davidpbillington.net/sphinx2.jpg
Works

Cited-Karlie Kondrath

-World history connections to today by Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis and Anthony Esler copyrighted in 1997 published in New Jersey
-Aquino N. 2009, Political Science unknown source http://texasliberal.wordpress.com/tag/political-science/
-Giza Inspiration: Great Pyramids and Sphinx-By Paulo Augusto 2010 source Zeemp blog http://blog.zeemp.com/giza-inspiration-great-pyramids-and-sphinx/
-unknown, 2010 Free Egypt source Link Egypt http://www.freeegypt.info/Pages/367/Ancient-Egypt-Government.html